Evaluation of fecal pH as a potential diagnostic indicator of diarrhea induced metabolic acidosi in Japanese black calves
Okada s. et al
- Riferimento: Large Animal Review 2018; 24: 139-142
- Abstract: Diarrhea in calves can lead to dehydration and metabolic acidosis, which can result in death; therefore, the diagnosis and treatment of this condition, should be carefully managed. Metabolic acidosis is especially difficult to diagnose by clinical signs alone. In addition, evaluation methods in the field are limited in terms of the lack of portable and cost-effective diagnostic tools available. Aim - In the present study, we evaluated the fecal pH of calves to determine if it can be used as an indicator of metabolic acidosis. Materials and methods - We collected 138 fecal samples from 89 calves with diarrhea and 18 healthy calves. We assigned clinical scores to each calf, using a conventional method, that evaluated activity, milk sucking ability, and fecal color. Fecal pH was measured using a pH meter (B-712 Twin pH; Horiba, Ltd., Kyoto, Japan) and blood gas of three factors (pH, HCO3 -, and BEecf) were immediately measured using an i-STAT Analyzer (Abbott Point of Care Inc., USA). The detection of pathogens in the diarrhea was performed by real-time PCR at Azabu University. Results and discussion - The correlation coefficient (r) between clinical scores and blood gas components (pH, HCO3 -, and BEecf) were r = [-0.474, -0.413, and -0.432], respectively, which showed negative correlations. These results were consistent with those presented in previous reports. The correlation coefficient between fecal pH and blood gas components were r = [0.682, 0.712, and 0.716], respectively, which showed positive correlations. This indicated that fecal pH may reflect the status of a calf ’s acid-base balance. We calculated the difference values ( ) for fecal pH and blood gas from measurements that were obtained on the day of treatment and 1 day post-treatment. The correlation coefficient between Fecal pH and blood gas revealed a positive correlation. According to the results, fecal pH may potentially be used as an index to evaluate and monitor the treatment of metabolic acidosis. From the ROC curve, the cutoff value of metabolic acidosis was calculated as fecal pH, 5.75 and a clinical score of 2. Sensitivity and specificity for fecal pH were 0.720 and 0.938, clinical scores were 0.633 and 0.578, and the combination of both criteria were 0.893 and 0.709, respectively. Using the combination was suitable for detecting metabolic acidosis. PCR identified Group A rotavirus, bovine toro virus, and Cryptosporidium parvum in 33 out of 73 specimens. There appeared to be high precision in detecting metabolic acidosis by testing fecal pH in the infectious diarrhea group when compared to the noninfectious diarrhea group. Thus, the pathogens causing diarrhea may have an influence on fecal pH. Conclusions - These results suggest that the fecal pH was strongly correlated with blood gas and could be an effective indicator of the acid-base balance relating to calf diarrhea. Furthermore, it was found that metabolic acidosis could be detected with considerable accuracy by the combination of fecal pH and clinical score. We hope that the measurement of fecal pH contributes to more effective diagnoses and treatment for metabolic acidosis.
- Note: //
- Specie: animali da reddito
- Anno: 2018
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