Effects of tramadol slow injections vs fast bolus in the therapeutic balanceof the foot in bovine
Riferimento:Large Animal Review 2018; 24: 219-221
Abstract:Introduction - A study performed in Brazil on detection and subsequent treatment of pain, by the veterinarian, in cattle and horses showed that tramadol was used by 39% of Brazilian practitioners. Aim - The objective of the present study is to evaluate the analgesic and sedative effects of slow intravenous injection of tramadol in bovine. Materials and methods - Twenty bovines (aged 3±1 years and weighing 600±20 kg) divided into two groups received, during the therapeutic balance of the foot, tramadol 1 mg/kg−1 by bolus IV (group B) or by slow intravenous injection administered over 10 minutes (group I). Heart rate (HR), respiratory rate (RR), Systolic Pressure (SP), sedation and analgesia were assessed before and up to 15 minutes following drug administration. The sedation was evaluated considering ataxia, assessed through a four-point grading scale and measuring height of the head above the ground. Analgesia was evaluated using Numeric Rating Score scale (NRS 0-10) and a cumulative pain scale (CPS), assigning scores (1-4) to the percentage variations, compared to baseline values of HR, RR and SP. Recorded physiological data were compared using Wilcoxon Test to evaluate changes along the time line, while differences between groups were compared using the Mann-Whitney U test. Ataxia and analgesia scores were compared using the Fischer’s exact test with p < 0.05 considered significant. Results and discussion - Heart rate, RR and SP increased, during the therapeutic balance, respect to baseline, in both groups. However, increase in HR, RR and SP in the group B is greater than in the group I. Ataxia scores were low in both groups as follow: group B 0(1-1) and group I 0(1-2). The height of the head above the ground was reduced in the group I (p = 0.000). Analgesia scores were significantly lower in the group I, for both NRS and CPS (p = 0.000). Conclusion - The outcomes of the present study showed that the slow intravenous tramadol administration over 10 minutes provided better analgesia and sedation compared to fast bolus administration in cattle.